Category Archives: Uncategorized

Abbreviated abstract: Children learn language more easily than adults, though when and why this ability declines have been obscure for a number of reasons. Studying a very large number of subjects, the authors  provide the first direct estimate of how grammar-learning ability … Continue reading

Posted in Uncategorized | Comments Off on A critical period for second language acquisition: Evidence from 2/3 million English speakers

Summary: Noninvasive delivery of alternating electrical currents to temporal and prefrontal brain regions improves working memory and reverses age-related changes in brain dynamics in the elderly, report Reinhart and Nguyen in Nature Neuroscience (22):820–827(2019). They also report a similar effect … Continue reading

Posted in Uncategorized | Comments Off on Reversing working memory decline in the elderly

Summary: “Depression is a mental illness characterized by episodes of a sad, despondent mood and/or a loss of interest or pleasure. This pathology affects nearly 20% of the population in the United States, and treatments are limited. Indeed, in the … Continue reading

Posted in Uncategorized | Comments Off on Do antidepressants restore lost synapses?

Abstract: “A critical period is a developmental epoch during which the nervous system is expressly sensitive to specific environmental stimuli that are required for proper circuit organization and learning. Mechanistic characterization of critical periods has revealed an important role for … Continue reading

Posted in Uncategorized | Comments Off on Oxytocin-dependent reopening of a social reward learning critical period with MDMA

Summary: “When choosing whether to act altruistically, people may compare the current option to an idiosyncratic ideal. Prosocial individuals seem to represent deviations from that ideal in the amygdala, but selfish individuals do not. Oxytocin administration makes selfish individuals look … Continue reading

Posted in Uncategorized | Comments Off on Oxytocin and the altruistic ‘Goldilocks zone’

Abstract: “Light plays a pivotal role in the regulation of affective behaviors. However, the precise circuits that mediate the impact of light on depressive-like behaviors are not well understood. Here, we show that light influences depressive-like behaviors through a disynaptic circuit linking the retina and … Continue reading

Posted in Uncategorized | Comments Off on A Visual Circuit Related to Habenula Underlies the Antidepressive Effects of Light Therapy

“’Enriched environments’ are a key experimental paradigm to decipher how interactions between genes and environment change the structure and function of the brain across the lifespan of an animal. The regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis by environmental enrichment is a … Continue reading

Posted in Uncategorized | Comments Off on Environmental enrichment, new neurons and the neurobiology of individuality

Abstract: “Synapse density is reduced in postmortem cortical tissue from schizophrenia patients, which is suggestive of increased synapse elimination. Using a reprogrammed in vitro model of microglia-mediated synapse engulfment, we demonstrate increased synapse elimination in patient-derived neural cultures and isolated … Continue reading

Posted in Uncategorized | Comments Off on Increased synapse elimination by microglia in schizophrenia patient-derived models of synaptic pruning

Abstract: “Sleep is integral to life. Although insufficient or disrupted sleep increases the risk of multiple pathological conditions, including cardiovascular disease, we know little about the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which sleep maintains cardiovascular health. Here we report that … Continue reading

Posted in Uncategorized | Comments Off on Sleep modulates haematopoiesis and protects against atherosclerosis

Summary: Sigma-1 receptors subdue systemic inflammation, which can be lethal, as in the case of septic shock. Mice lacking the endoplasmic reticulum sigma-1 receptor had exacerbated responses to LPS (lipopolysaccharides) or fecal slurry. The antidepressant fluvoxamine can bind sigma-1 and … Continue reading

Posted in Uncategorized | Comments Off on Antidepressant fluvoxamine lowers inflammatory cytokine production via sigma-1 receptor