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Summary: “What is the physical basis of memory? What does it take to retrieve a memory in the brain? What would it take to activate or erase memories? In the early 20th century, the German zoologist Richard Semon coined the … Continue reading

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Currently, no reliable predictors of cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease exist. The authors hypothesized that microstructural changes in specific cholinergic and limbic pathways underlie cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease. They performed cross-sectional comparisons between patients with Parkinson’s disease with and … Continue reading

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“Dopamine is a critical modulator of both learning and motivation. This presents a problem: how can target cells know whether increased dopamine is a signal to learn or to move? It is often presumed that motivation involves slow (‘tonic’) dopamine changes, while fast (‘phasic’) dopamine fluctuations convey … Continue reading

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The authors of this report examined the prospective relationship between physical activity and incident depression and explored potential moderators. Prospective cohort studies evaluating incident depression were searched from database inception through Oct. 18, 2017, on PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, and SPORTDiscus. Demographic and clinical data, data on physical activity and depression assessments, and odds ratios, relative risks, … Continue reading

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The behavioral state of an individual can dramatically alter how information is processed in its neural circuits. In this study, Albergaria et al. show that locomotion enhances the performance of a cerebellum-dependent behavior…….performance in delay eyeblink conditioning. Specifically, increased locomotor … Continue reading

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NATURE NEWS FEATURE  24 APRIL 2018 Is ‘friendly fire’ in the brain provoking Alzheimer’s disease? Scientists want to combat dementia and neurodegeneration by keeping the brain’s immune system from going rogue.   https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-018-04930-7

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Abstract: “Despite evidence for a role of the dopamine system in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, there has not been substantial evidence that this disorder originates from a pathological change within the dopamine system itself. Current data from human imaging studies … Continue reading

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“The effects of neurodegenerative syndromes extend beyond cognitive function to involve key physiological processes, including eating and metabolism, autonomic nervous system function, sleep, and motor function. Changes in these physiological processes are present in several conditions, including frontotemporal dementia, amyotrophic … Continue reading

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This study shows that the number of mature neurons in the human amygdala increases from childhood into adulthood. The authors suggest that this trajectory may be due to the incorporation of immature neurons from the paralaminar nucleus in the ventral … Continue reading

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Bipolar disorder is considered to be a leading cause of global disability. Its biological basis is unknown, and its treatment is not optimal. Here, Harrison and colleagues review two recent areas of progress.” First, the discovery of risk genes and … Continue reading

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