Kaminski, J.A. et al.:  Epigenetic variance in dopamine D2 receptor: a marker of IQ malleability? Translational Psychiatry (2018)8:169 DOI 10.1038/s41398-018-0222-7

Excerpt: “Genetic variance is known to explain a substantial part of variability in cognitive capacity. The largest available study describes that polygenic scores (i.e., those common genetic variants that are most strongly associated with test performance in previous studies) explain up to 4.8% of the variance of general intelligence quotient IQ (gIQ). A more recent larger but not yet peer reviewed study, shows up to 5.4% of variance explained. On the other hand, environmental factors have a significant impact on general cognitive capacity, as indicated by the strong rise in average IQ performance following the decades after World War II.  According to Flynn et al. the change ranged from 5 to 25 IQ points (eg. 0.3 to 1.7 standard deviation (SD)) within one generation. This change appears to be too strong to be explained by genetic changes. While various environmental factors…..”


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”SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus that severely affects the respiratory system, is the cause of the COVID-19 pandemic, and is projected to result in the deaths of 2 million people worldwide. Recent reports suggest that SARS-CoV-2 also affects the central nervous system along with other organs. COVID-19-associated complications are observed in older people with underlying neurological conditions like stroke, Alzheimer’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease. Hence, we discuss SARS-CoV-2 viral replication and its inflammation-mediated infection. This review also focuses on COVID-19 associated neurological complications in individuals with those complications as well as other groups of people. Finally, we also briefly discuss the current therapies available to treat patients, as well as ongoing available treatments and vaccines for effective cures with a special focus on the therapeutic potential of a small 5 amino acid peptide (PHSCN), ATN-161, that inhibits SARS-CoV-2 spike protein binding to both integrin α5β1 and α5β1/hACE2.”


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COVID research updates: Older people are at higher risk of getting COVID twice

“An analysis of millions of coronavirus test results in Denmark suggests that natural infection with SARS-CoV-2 protects against reinfection in most people — but this protection is significantly weaker in those aged 65 years or older. ….”



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Abstract: Trillions of symbiotic microbial cells colonize our body, of which the larger part is present in the human gut. These microbes play an essential role in our health and a shift in the microbiome is linked to several diseases. Recent studies also suggest a link between changes in gut microbiota and neurological disorders. Gut microbiota can communicate with the brain via several routes, together called the microbiome-gut-brain axis: the neuronal route, the endocrine route, the metabolic route and the immunological route. Helicobacter is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria colonizing the stomach, intestine and liver. Several papers show the role of H. pylori in the development and progression of neurological disorders, while hardly anything is known about other Helicobacter species and the brain. We recently reported a high prevalence of H. suis in patients with Parkinson’s disease and showed an effect of a gastric H. suis infection on the mouse brain homeostasis. Here, we discuss the potential role of H. suis in neurological disorders and how it may affect the brain via the microbiome-gut-brain axis.

Gorlé N, Bauwens E, Haesebrouck F, Smet A, Vandenbroucke RE.:Helicobacter and the Potential Role in Neurological Disorders: There is more than Helicobacter pylori.
Front Immunol. 2021 Jan 28;11:584165. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2020.584165. eCollection 2020.


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