1. https://www.cdc.gov/healthy schools/food allergies/index.htm

It ha been estimated that approximately 8%of children have food allergies (commonly: milk, eggs, fish, crustacean shellfish, wheat, soy, peanuts, tree nuts). Additionally, it has been reported that there is a 21 % increase in childhood peanut allergy since 2010. Ref: www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/10/171027085541.htm .

Additionally, it has been reported that 10-44% of individuals who work with laboratory animals will develop allergic symptoms. An estimated 10% of laboratory workers may also develop occupation-related asthma. Ref: https://ehs.ucsf.edu/allergies-laboratory-animals-significant-health-risk .

2. Whether a test substance is safe, is  dose-dependent. Ki, Kd, IC50 values are important to know when evaluating drug target and side-effects. Additionally, test substances may interfere with drug metabolism of other medications (and genotype is important when evaluating drug-drug interactions as well).
Ref: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IC50     https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/pharmacology-toxicology-and-pharmaceutical-science/dose-response-assessment

3. Examples of adverse drug-drug interactions:

Tylenol (acetaminophen) metabolism creates harmful products (N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine) . Drinking alcohol while taking acetaminophen, creates more harmful products and may lead to liver damage. Ref:  https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/322813 .

Pharmacological (high) doses of health food supplements do not always produce healthy outcomes. For example, high dose beta-carotene food supplements produced an increased incidence of lung cancer in smokers, but not in non-smoker test subjects. Ref: Goodman GE et al., The Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial: incidence of lung cancer and cardiovascular disease mortality during 6-year follow-up after stopping beta-carotene and retinol supplements. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 96(23): 1743-1750 (2004). https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15572756/ . Also see:
Herbal medicine for psychiatric disorders: Psychopharmacology and neuroscience-based nomenclature.  World J. Biol. Psychiatry 2019 Oct;20(8):586-604.  doi: 10.1080/15622975.2017.1346279. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28649903/ .

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are tumor cells with stem cell-like qualities that promote tumor progression, adaption to stress, and resistance to chemotherapy. Bhattacharya et al. found that aspirin targets CSCs in a way that may enhance the efficacy of chemotherapy in patients with basal-like breast cancers. In cultured CSCs from invasive breast tumors or in a mouse model of breast cancer, aspirin suppressed the synthesis of the drug efflux pump ABCG2 by relieving the repression of the transcription cofactor SMAR1 by pluripotency factors. Aspirin prevented doxorubicin-induced repression of SMAR1 and proliferation of CSCs, consequently enhancing the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin. Thus, in addition to its current use as an anti-inflammatory for inflammation-driven premalignancies and cancers, aspirin might also be used to target CSCs in invasive breast cancer.”
SMAR1 repression by pluripotency factors and consequent chemoresistance in breast cancer stem-like cells is reversed by aspirin. Science Signaling 13(654): eaay6077 (Oct.20, 2020); DOI: 10.1126/scisignal.aay6077. https://stke.sciencemag.org/content/13/654/eaay6077b

4. Some products for sale to the general public are not safe to use. Example: outbreak of lung injury associated with E-cigarette use/vaping. Ref: https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/basic_information/e-cigarettes/severe-lung-disease.html .





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