Gut bacteria from multiple sclerosis patients were investigated for their immunoregulatory effects in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis. The authors identified specific bacteria that are associated with multiple sclerosis and demonstrated that these bacteria regulate T lymphocyte-mediated adaptive immune responses and contribute to the proinflammatory environment in vitro and in vivo. The results expand understanding of the microbial regulation of immunity and may provide a basis for the development of microbiome-based therapeutics in autoimmune diseases.

Cekanaviciute E, Yoo BB, Runia TF, Debelius JW, Singh S, Nelson CA, Kanner R, Bencosme Y, Lee YK, Hauser SL, Crabtree-Hartman E, Katz Sand I, Gacias M, Zhu Y, Casaccia P, Cree BAC, Knight R, Mazmanian SK and Baranzini SE: Gut bacteria from multiple sclerosis patients modulate human T cells and exacerbate symptoms in mouse models. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA [Epub ahead of print, Sept. 11, 2017]; doi: 10.1073/pnas.1711235114.

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