“Neurodevelopmental programming – the implementation of the genetic and epigenetic blueprints that guide and coordinate normal brain development – requires tight regulation of transcriptional processes. During prenatal and postnatal time periods, epigenetic processes fine-tune neurodevelopment towards an end product that determines how an organism interacts with and responds to exposures and experiences throughout life. Epigenetic processes also have the ability to reprogramme the epigenome in response to environmental challenges, such as maternal stress, making the organism more or less adaptive depending on the future challenges presented. Epigenetic marks generated within germ cells as a result of environmental influences throughout life can also shape future generations long before conception occurs.” This review summarizes recent concepts on this topic.
Bale TL: Epigenetic and transgenerational reprogramming of brain development. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 16(6): 332-344 (2015).