Abstract: “The prevalence of autoimmune diseases (ADs) worldwide has rapidly increased over the past few decades. Thus, in addition to the classical risk factors for ADs, such as genetic polymorphisms, infections and smoking, environmental triggers have been considered. Recent sequencing-based approaches have revealed that patients with extra-intestinal ADs, such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes and systemic lupus erythematosus, have distinct gut microbiota compositions compared to healthy controls. Faecal microbiota transplantation or inoculation with specific microbes in animal models of ADs support the hypothesis that alterations of gut microbiota influence autoimmune responses and disease outcome. Here, we describe the compositional and functional changes in the gut microbiota in patients with extra-intestinal AD and discuss how the gut microbiota affects immunity. Moreover, we examine how the gut microbiota might be modulated in patients with ADs as a potential preventive or therapeutic approach.”
Miyauchi E, Shimokawa C, Steimle A, Desai MS, Ohno H. The impact of the gut microbiome on extra-intestinal autoimmune diseases. Nat Rev Immunol. 2022 May 9. doi: 10.1038/s41577-022-00727-y. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35534624.